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A Quick look at a JavaScript Promise

Promises are used to simplify asynchronous programming.

Sometimes when writing a function, you don't know the value to return right away, quite often because you need to make an XMLHttpRequest to get some data first.

Now you can return a Promise which the function caller will use to get the value some time later.

new Promise(function(resolve, reject) { ... });

Here's a simple example:

function genNumber()
    return new Promise(function (resolve, reject) {
        var time = Math.random() * 3500 + 1000;

        // Simulate some kind of async work
            function () {
                return resolve(Math.round(time));
            }, time);

        // This simple example never rejects but you'd probably 
        // want to if you made a failing ajax call, for example.

// A Promise is returned here, not the number.
var p1 = genNumber();

Using then()

Generally you'll then want to use then() to do something with the value once it's ready.

// When the promise is resolved, we use the value
p1.then(function (value) {
        console.log("Value from p1: " + value);
    }, function () {

Using Promise.all()

Another useful method is Promise.all(iterable). It's used to return a promise that resolves when all of the promises in the iterable have resolved. An "iterable" is an object such as an Array.

var p2 = genNumber();

var p3 = genNumber();

Promise.all([p1, p2, p3]).then(function (values) {
    // This is executed when all the promises have resolved
    console.log("Values from all(): " + values);

Browser support

Promises are a fairly new but they already have some good support.

Further reading

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